· Carbohydrates: They are a priority fuel- if we have a higher level of CHO in the blood we are going to have to use them preferentially. The body switches metabolic machinery to a 'sugar burning' state and we will not use fat as a fuel (switch off the fat burning machinery).
· In other words: CHO are not a better fuel, they are just a fuel that will be used if it is there.
· Increase blood sugar -> increase insulin.
· High levels of insulin over a long period of time will be negative due to issues with resistance.
· Glycation: sugar molecules attaching to protein structures without the action of an enzyme. This causes protein tissue to not work as effectively (arterial tissue, receptor sites as an example).
· Glycation occurs when eating high sugar diet.
· We will always have circulating glucose irrespective of our diet. This is because some cells require glucose for fuel- for example red blood cells- survives solely through anaerobic glycolysis (sugar burners).
· One size fits all CHO prescription does not seem to work. WHO has shifted minimum requirement of CHO from 65% of daily calories to 45%.
· Massive correlation between diabetes and Alzheimer’s etc. There is evidence to suggest that high CHO is damaging to the brain.
· Coconut oil is 90% MCTs (medium chain triglycerides) which approx a 1/3 are directly converted to ketones. Saturated fats could be considered neuroprotective because of this (become fatty derived fuel that the brain can use).
· MCTs found in small amounts in products like sheep or goat milk. Lauric acid is a 12 carbon chain- this makes it a MCT structural, functionally it is just on the outer- only 25% goes into the hepatic portal vein and into the liver and converted to ketones.
· Long chain triglycerides are bound to albumin so cannot cross blood brain barrier.
· Most of our dietary fats are LCTs. MCTs and SCTs will cross blood-brain barrier, as they are not bound to albumin.
· The size of the LDL particle is important- large particle is much more effective at performing it's role. In a LCHF diet, the LDL will go up but you will have more of the large particle LDL opposed to the small particle LDL.
· Protein is predominantly structural component- 15% of our calorie requirement. Protein chains are broken down into amino acids that are used for neurotransmitters etc (protein is a building block).
· Building blocks for hormones is from fat. Cholesterol derived from fat in the liver. Fat is how we make all hormones such as testosterone, oestrogen, cortisol, aldosterone etc.
· If you do not consume enough fat it has huge detrimental effect on hormone function.
· You could say that fat is our primary fuel source as we use it most at rest and at low intensity activity in a fat adapted individual. When we ramp this up (high intensity exercise) CHO is then used.
· There is no reason to be in ketosis: a lot of people get the same results from a low carb non ketogenic diet as apposed to a low carb ketogenic diet. Good for people with certain disorders otherwise not really needed unless it makes you feel better. You do not need to be in ketosis to be burning lots of fat.
· It is rather difficult to gain muscle whilst in ketosis.