· Metabolic efficiency: process of converting chemicals into other forms- happening in an effective way.
· Metabolic flexibility: Having a metabolic state modifiable to conditions
· Nutritional ketosis: describes a state of low-grade ketonaemia between 0.5mmol/L and 3mmol/L of betahydroxybutyrate (BOHB). The level of 0.5mmol/L came about through research in a hospital where at 0.5mmol/L and above people began to feel much better -termed by Jeff Volek and Stephen Phinney.
· Ketogenesis: the creation of ketone bodies
· Ketonaemia: Presence of ketones in the body
· Fat adapted: The process of using fat more effectively for fuel- ability to convert fat substrates into neural fuels (ketones).
· Carb-dependent: The state of CHO fuel preference- even at low intensity exercise (they are a sugar burner)
· Metabolic flexibility: we want to be able to use different types of fuel sources and not just be reliant on CHO as a fuel (as this would mean we would need to eat frequently and constant amounts of CHO/ sugar).
· Effective metabolic flexibility in a nutshell makes our lives easier- as then we aren't a slave to the fridge. Ability to use fat for a fuel as well.
· Benefits of improved metabolic efficiency: A high sugar intake causes an inflammatory response in the body delaying recovery time from workouts and increasing the risk of chronic disease. Training the body to oxidize fat at higher exercise intensities will delay the accumulation of lactate and enables us to maintain pace for longer. The stomachs ability to digest food is compromised whilst exercising therefore a lower CHO requirement will mean we don't need to eat as much CHO during exercise, which will reduce the chances of gastric distress. This is a common problem in endurance athletes. Finally it improves ability to manage weight and achieve leanness through a more efficient metabolic function.
· CHO appropriate diets: Focused on natural, whole, unprocessed foods, CHO tailored to activity levels, low in refined sugars, low in man-made trans fats, moderate to high in fat, moderate to high in protein- depending on goals.
· Standard American diet: Glucose preference, glycolytic dominance
· 'Carb appropriate': Increased fatty oxidation
· Ketosis: increased ketone production, reduced glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis.
· Glycogenolysis: occurs due to an insufficient glucose supply
· Gluconeogenesis: Occurs due to reduced glycogen stores (especially hepatic)
· Ketogenesis: Reduction in ability to provide glucose via gluconeogenesis
· Fat adapted athlete: Fat is used as a fuel right up until very high intensities of exercise.
· Coconut oil: doesn't just cause Ketonaemia but also ketogenesis- MCTs encourage development of ketones bodies from other fats.